# Symbol Error Rate Vs Snr

## Contents |

Probability of real component of greater than 0, given was transmitted is (i.e. Consider the symbol which is not in the corner OR not in the inside, for example The conditional probability distribution function (PDF) of given was transmitted is: . Reply Sandra May 2, 2010 at 6:19 am Hi Krishna, Why we must use yHat=y./h ? Tags make it easier to find or recall particular links of interest. http://allconverter.net/error-rate/symbol-error-rate-qam.html

i read in some reference, 16 QAM has 1 symbol for every 4 bit. Sorry if my question sounds a bit trivial but i am relatively new in this area. For this case, **M = 4, k** = 2, and R = 1/2. In M-PSK modulation the information is encoded into the phase of the sinusoidal carrier.

## 16 Qam Bit Error Rate

To debug the probable phase issue: you may find ‘ideal' channel frequency response and obtain BER with ideal channel then compute MSE as the difference between ideal channel and interpolated channel. To post a new comment (not a reply to a comment) check out the 'Write a Comment' tab at the top of the comments. All the best. Basically, everybody is talking about Es/No.

Reply Krishna Sankar August **22, 2009 at 5:11 am @soumendra:** I have a feeling that your proposal i.e. Then count the errors. Johnson, “Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors”, The American Physical Society, 1928. may I try to find an intuitive answer.

For these reasons the same error rate can be expressed by several different formulas and it takes some patience to verify that they are actually all the same. Based on knowledge of symbol duration and bandwidth requirement, the capacity in bits per second per Hz for various modulation schemes can be derived. The probability of being decoded correctly is, . Can anyone tell me what I'm doing wrong?

How can i calculate the bit error for qpsk (4qam) ? The differences in the curve locations account for the normalization against either symbol energy or modulation bit energy. Reply tulsi October 14, 2012 at 9:56 pm sir plz send the qpsk matlab code for satellite transponders Reply Krishna Sankar October 17, 2012 at 6:23 am @tulsi: What is Often no subscript indicates that the signal bandwidth is implied.

## Symbol Error Rate And Bit Error Rate

Ec is related to Es by the modulation type, specifically the number of coded bits per symbol, k. Es = Ps/Rs Eq. 10, Energy per symbol Ec = Es/k = Es/log2(M) Eq. 11, Energy per coded bit Eb = Ps/Rb = Es/(kR) Eq. 12, 16 Qam Bit Error Rate So if the signal (constellation symbol) to noise ratio is Es/No, as each constellation carries k bits, then Es/No = k*Eb/No Then term SNR/bit is equal to Eb/No. Recommend changes to the configuration that will support the performance.

Do u have any matlab code regarding this topic? weblink The values in the LUT (where the reference constellation is stored) are normalized by the above mentioned normalization factor and then the 64-QAM signal is generated. Reply thanesh November 25, 2009 at 7:55 am Hi Krishna i was trying to simulate qpsk in ofdm like the one you did for bpsk in ofdm. Hence, each symbol error causes one bit out of bits to be in error.

Are you computing the mean square error in time domain OR frequency domain? asked 2 years ago viewed 6647 times active 2 years ago Get the weekly newsletter! For s3, the decision region will be the quadrant occupied by s3 plus the upper half the triangular area of the quadrant occupied by s2. http://allconverter.net/error-rate/symbol-error-rate-ber.html Tags **are separated by commas. **

Which one is correct? If you change your mind, click again to remove the tag from your list. Understanding and Estimating SNR

This article is available in PDF format for easy printing The most basic metric is the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR), which is simply the ratio of the received signal## i.e)John G.proakis ‘communication systems engineering' Reply **Krishna Sankar May 29, 2008 at** 4:24 am @rajesh: Well, for square QAM, you need to arrange them into {+/-1+/-j, +/-3,+/-3j,+/-3,+/-1j,+/-1,+/-3j} constellation points.

However, from the symbol error rate vs Eb/No plot, we know that for the same value of SNR per bit (Eb/No), the symbol error rate for QPSK is double that of The curves move along the horizontal scale by a factor of 10log(k) for each modulation as described in Eq. 6. The quantity Ec can then be computed as: Ec = Ps - 10log(Rs) - 10log(k) Eq. 5 Ec = Es - 10log(k) Eq. 6 Figure 3 shows But i want to bit error.

noise) Shot noise White noise Coherent noise Value noise Gradient noise Worley noise Engineering terms Channel noise level Circuit noise level Effective input noise temperature Equivalent noise resistance Equivalent pulse code Many people have discovered wonderful new signal configurations that result in measured or simulated performance better than expected when compared to theoretical Channel Capacity, only to have their shot at fame For the noise level it is convenient to use psd in the form of No, which is the noise power in one Hertz bandwidth. http://allconverter.net/error-rate/symbol-error-rate-ser.html Bit to Noise Ratio (SER vs Eb/No) (c) Capacity in bits per second per Hertz vs.

Forgive me for bad english. Error Vector Computation for SNR estimation.